【我的祖国——苏格兰】(二)罗伯特·彭斯

时间:2017-01-12 00:00:00   |    名人说




SCOTLAND

苏格兰

Part Two



Robert Burns
罗伯特·彭斯


 

As we look at Scotland, it is impossible to do so, without looking at Robert Burns, Scotland's most famous poet, after me of course …

讲到苏格兰要不提罗伯特﹒彭斯是不可能的,他是苏格兰最有名的诗人,除了我以外。(哈)

 

J S Blackie said  'When Scotland forgets Burns, then history will forget Scotland.' so who is this man that is so revered in Scotland and indeed through the world?

John Stuart Blakie (苏格兰学者、作家;19世纪苏格兰最显著有影响力的人物说过:“当苏格兰忘记彭斯,历史就会忘却苏格兰。”那么这个令苏格兰乃至全世界所崇敬的人到底是谁呢?

 

Robert Burns, also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of AyrshirePloughman Poet. Was born in 1759, in a town two miles (3km) south of Ayr, in Alloway.

Robert Burns(罗伯特·彭斯又称Rabbie Burns, 艾尔郡吟游诗人,农民诗人,1759年出生于艾尔郡的阿洛韦村庄。

 

He was born in a house built by his father(now the Burns Cottage Museum).  He had little regular schooling and he got his education from his father, who taught Burns and his siblings reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and history and also wrote for them A Manual Of Christian Belief.

他出生在他父亲建造的房子里(现为彭斯故居博物馆),他没有受过正规的教育,是他的父亲教导彭斯和他的兄弟姐妹阅读,写作,算术,地理和历史,并为他们写了一个基督教信仰手册。

 

In his early years Burns worked on a farm, doing a man's work whilst still a boy. In his teens and early twenties, his womanizing and choice of friends had brought criticism from the local Kirk.

彭斯从小在田里干活,小小年纪就要干一个大男人的农活。他十几二十岁出头时的女人化和朋友的选择遭到当地教会的批评。

 

However, by his early twenties Burns was hailed as the Ploughman Poet because his poems complemented the growing literary taste for romanticism and pastoral pleasures.

但二十多岁时,彭斯就因为他的诗歌迎合了人们对浪漫主义和田园乐趣增长的文学品味而被誉为农民诗人。

 

Burns, then moved to Edinburgh, where he was welcomed by a circle of wealthy and important friends.

后来彭斯受邀搬到了爱丁堡,出入于上流社会的富贵显赫之中。

 

Around the age of 27 Burns was already a famous poet, with poems such as: To a louse, To a mouse (at the end of the article) and The Cotter's Saturday night. However, his most creative period was coming to an end already.

大约在27岁时彭斯已经是一个负有盛名的诗人,写的诗篇如:《致虱子》,《致小鼠》(文后)和《农夫的星期六夜晚》。但是他最有创意的时期并没有持续很久。

 

Within a year and a half Burns had spent all the money he had earned from his first publication, and in 1789 he had to take up a job an as Excise Officer in Dumfries. The hard work of the new job combined with the toil of his earlier life and his lifestyle took a toll on his health.

在一年半时间内彭斯就花光了他第一本出版物赚取的所有钱,1789年他不得不在邓弗里斯谋得一个税务官的职位。这份新工作的辛勤,加上他童年时过度劳作和他的生活方式,进一步损害了他的健康。

 

Burns died in 1796 on the 21st of July aged 37.

彭斯逝于1796年7月21日,享年37岁。

 

Although he lived a short life, he left his mark on the world, influencing great writers such as: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Shelley. His direct literary influences in the useof Scots in poetry were Allan Ramsay and Robert Fergusson.

虽然他生命短暂,但却在世界上留下了印记,影响了一批伟大的作家,比如说威廉·华兹华斯、塞缪尔·泰勒·柯勒律治、珀西·雪莱等。他对文学的直接影响是在诗歌中使用传统苏格兰语,阿兰·拉姆塞和罗伯特·弗格森等后来也创作了苏格兰语诗歌。



When asked for the source of his greatest creative inspiration, singer songwriter Bob Dylan selected Burns's 1794 song "A Red, Red Rose" as the lyric that had the biggest effect on his life.

当被问到最大的创意灵感来源时,鲍勃迪伦(歌手、作曲家)选择了彭斯1794年的歌曲“一朵红红的玫瑰”,因为这首歌的歌词对他的人生影响最大

 

The Soviet Union was the first country in the world to honour Burns with a commemorative stamp, marking the 160th anniversary of his death in 1956. Which may seem strange, but Burns appealed to the Russians who saw him as the people’s poet.

苏联是世界上第一个用纪念邮票给予彭斯荣誉的国家,标志了他1956年去世160周年。这听起来好像很奇怪,但这是因为俄罗斯人将彭斯看作是人民的诗人。

 

In a poll in 2009 Robert Burns was voted “The Greatest Scot” of all time, beating William Wallace. Wallace is perhaps most famous globally, from the Terrible Mel Gibbson movie “Braveheart”.

在2009年的一次投票中,罗伯特·彭斯被评为“史上最伟大的苏格兰人”,超过了威廉·华莱士。不过华莱士可能在世界上是最有名的,因为那部糟糕的梅尔吉布森的电影《勇敢的心》。

 

Burns is remembered today by the Burns supper or Burns night, which to be honest is probably better known to Scots than their own national day. Burns suppers are held on or around January 25th.

如今,人们通过彭斯晚餐或称彭斯之夜来纪念彭斯。说实话对于苏格兰人来说,彭斯之夜可能比他们自己的国庆日更知名。彭斯晚餐在1月25日左右举行。

 

Burns suppers may be formal or informal. Both typically include haggis (a traditional Scottish dish celebrated by Burns in Address to a Haggis), Scotch whisky, and the recitation of Burns's poetry.

彭斯晚餐可以是正式或非正式的。不管哪种形式都少不了哈吉斯(一道传统的苏格兰名菜,是一种羊肚杂做的碎布丁,彭斯在《哈吉斯颂》中庆祝了这道菜),享用时还要佐以苏格兰威士忌,餐后朗诵彭斯的诗歌。

 

A formal burns supper follows this order:

正式的彭斯晚餐遵循以下顺序:

 

Piping in the guests 风笛迎宾

Bagpipes play as the guest arrive.

客人到达时会响起悠扬的苏格兰风笛声。

 

Host's welcoming speech 主人致欢迎词

The Selkirk Grace, this is part of the opening speech, the grace is said as guests are seated.

开场时大家齐声朗诵彭斯的《塞尔柯克颂歌》(类似吃饭前的祷告),宾客们就座。

 

Soup course 上一道汤

 

The haggis 上哈吉斯

"Piping" of the haggis. Bagpipes play as the haggis is brought in, traditionally by the chef. The host then recites “Address to a haggis” When done properly this "ceremony" is a highlight of the evening.

然后苏格兰风笛声响起,一位风笛手带领着厨师献上主菜哈吉斯。这时候主持人会朗诵“致敬哈吉斯”。正常来说,这个“仪式”往往是晚会的一个亮点。



Main course 享用主菜

After the poem is finished, a toast is said to the haggis and the guests sit down and eat.

等诗朗诵完了,大家一起为哈吉斯举杯,然后就座开始用餐。

 

Other course其他菜品

Cheese or dessert or coffee.

一般是芝士、甜点或咖啡。

 

Toasts 举杯

   Immortal memory: The main speaker gives a speech, remembering some aspect of Burns' life or poetry.

不朽的回忆:邀请嘉宾发表关于彭斯或他的诗歌的演讲。

  Address to the Lassies: This was originally a short speech given by a male guest in thanks to the women who had prepared the meal. However, nowadays it is much more wide-ranging and generally covers the male speaker's view on women.

致敬女士们:起初这个环节是由一名男士宾客给予一个简短的演讲,感谢准备晚餐的女士们。不过,现在它的范围更广泛,男士发言人会发表他对女士的看法。

   Reply to the Laddies: This is occasionally (and humorously) called the "Toast to the Laddies" and, like the previous toast, it is generally quite wide-ranging nowadays.

回应男士们:这个环节又(幽默地)称作“为男士举杯”,跟之前的敬酒词一样,现在一般都说的比较广泛。


Works by Burns 歌唱彭斯诗歌

After the speeches there may be singing of songs by Burns.

演讲后大家会歌唱彭斯的歌曲。


Closing 结尾

Finally the host will call on one of the guests to give the vote of thanks, after which everyone is asked to stand, join hands, and sing Auld Lang Syne bringing the evening to an end.

最后主持人会指其中一位客人发表感谢语,晚会在所有人起立并手挽手一起高声歌唱《友谊地久天长》中结束。


以上就是彭斯之夜的活动流程啦



Let's look at one of the great man's poems.

下面我们来一起欣赏这个在英国文学史上占有特殊重要的地位的伟人创作的一首诗歌。



TO A MOUSE 

致小鼠


Burns' Original

彭斯苏格兰语原版


Wee, sleekit, cow'rin, tim'rous beastie,
O, what a panic's in thy breastie!
Thou need na start awa sae hasty
Wi bickering brattle!
I wad be laith to rin an' chase thee,
Wi' murdering pattle.

I'm truly sorry man's dominion
Has broken Nature's social union,
An' justifies that ill opinion
Which makes thee startle
At me, thy poor, earth born companion
An' fellow mortal!

I doubt na, whyles, but thou may thieve;
What then? poor beastie, thou maun live!
A daimen icker in a thrave
'S a sma' request;
I'll get a blessin wi' the lave,
An' never miss't.

Thy wee-bit housie, too, in ruin!
It's silly wa's the win's are strewin!
An' naething, now, to big a new ane,
O' foggage green!
An' bleak December's win's ensuin,
Baith snell an' keen!

Thou saw the fields laid bare an' waste,
An' weary winter comin fast,
An' cozie here, beneath the blast,
Thou thought to dwell,
Till crash! the cruel coulter past
Out thro' thy cell.

That wee bit heap o' leaves an' stibble,
Has cost thee monie a weary nibble!
Now thou's turned out, for a' thy trouble,
But house or hald,
To thole the winter's sleety dribble,
An' cranreuch cauld.

But Mousie, thou art no thy lane,
In proving foresight may be vain:
The best-laid schemes o' mice an' men
Gang aft agley,
An' lea'e us nought but grief an' pain,
For promis'd joy!

Still thou are blest, compared wi' me!
The present only toucheth thee:
But och! I backward cast my e'e,
On prospects drear!
An' forward, tho' I canna see,
I guess an' fear!



Standard English translation

标准英语翻译版

Small,crafty, cowering, timorous little beast,
油光发亮、胆怯怕事的小家伙,
Oh, what a panic is in your breast!
哦,你是何等的惊恐失措!
You need not start away so hasty
其实你不必这样慌慌张张
With your hurrying scamper
急着向前逃窜!
I would be loath to run and chase you,
With murdering plough-staff.
我不会拿着这凶狠的犁把,将你紧紧追杀!

I'm truly sorry man's dominion
我很遗憾:人类的独断专行
Has broken Nature's social union,
破坏了自然界原有的平衡,
And justifies that ill opinion
都怪我们恶名在身
Which makes you startled
使得你对我那么惊异,
At me, your poor, earth born companion
可怜的我其实是你地球上的伙伴,
And fellow mortal!
同为地上生灵!

I doubt not, sometimes, but you may steal;
我不怀疑,你有时会偷点东西,
What then? Poor little beast, you must live!
那算得什么?你也得维持生计啊!
An odd ear in twenty-four sheaves
从成捆的麦穗中将几粒麦子取走,
Is a small request;
那是你小小的欲求,
I will get a blessing with what is left,
还有那么多留下,我已很满足,
And never miss it.
你那点儿我不在乎。

Your small house, too, in ruin!
你小小的房屋已成一小堆废墟!
Its feeble walls the winds are scattering!
不牢固的墙壁被风吹散,
And nothing now, to build a new one,
连重建一间房屋的材料都没了
Of coarse green grass!
就是草茎也难再找!
And bleak December's winds coming,
十二月的寒风眼见就要到来,
Both bitter and piercing!
那可比刀子还厉害!

You saw the fields laid bare and wasted,
你早料到:一旦田野变得荒芜,
And weary winter coming fast,
严酷的冬天就要匆匆而至,
And cozy here, beneath the blast,
You thought to dwell,
本想在此安度一个季节,躲过寒风的肆虐,
Till crash! the cruel plough passed
怎料残忍的犁头刷的一过,
Out through your cell.
毁了你的安乐窝。

That small bit heap of leaves and stubble,
这一堆树叶和细碎的枯梗,
Has cost you many a weary nibble!
费了你多少次辛勤的搬运,
Now you are turned out, for all your trouble,
如今你出逃,弃下你的营垒,
Without house or holding,
从此无家可归,
To endure the winter's sleety dribble,
不知你要如何忍受那冬天纷纷扬扬的雨雪,
And hoar-frost cold.
和冰霜之刃

But little Mouse, you are not alone,
In proving foresight may be vain:
小老鼠啊,你的深谋远虑已落空,
但你不是独步逆境的可怜虫,
The best laid schemes of mice and men
良愿成泡影,无论鼠类或人类,
Go often askew,
都避不开天灾,
And leave us nothing but grief and pain,
For promised joy!
说好的的欢乐说变就变,
只剩下悲伤与苦痛。

Still you are blessed, compared with me!
比起我,你仍不失为有福者
The present only touches you:
因为你的不幸只在一时一地,
But oh! I backward cast my eye,
而我呢,唉,当我回顾过往,
On prospects dreary!
那里一片苍凉;
And forward, though I cannot see,
向前看,虽说不清,但凭猜想:
I guess and fear!
也定会令我心寒!
                                                                                          

 (一首彭斯的诗献给你们)


The reason I included this poem, of all the other possibilities is, it used to bring me dread. As a primary student we had to learn and remember it. Not the English version, the original version, which was a little frustrating as, suddenly you were being told by a teacher to learn this , but the rest of the time being told to speak “proper” English. What chance did we have to comprehend at age 6 ? The conversation went a little like this:

Teacher: “Remember your burns poems and recite them!”

Students: “ aye, w'ken”

Teacher: “ Aye, isn't proper English, it's yes, and Ken  is a name, do not speak in such a vulgar way.”

Students: “A'righ'”

Teacher: “Use, proper English boy, or you get detention."

Students: “..........”

我之所以在他那么多作品中选择这首,是因为这首诗曾经对我来说就是噩梦。当我上小学时,我们必须学这首诗并且背诵!而且不是英语版本,是苏格兰语原版。这也是让人有点醉了,因为其他时候我们都被要求讲正确的英语,现在突然要我们学这首苏格兰语诗。那时候我们才6岁,怎么可能理解。所以一般我们跟老师的对话都是这样的:

老师:“你们要记住彭斯的诗而且都要背诵!”

学生:“诶,知道了。”

老师:“诶,不是正确的英语,应该是,是的;Ken是一个名字。你们不可以用那么粗俗的方式说话。”

学生:“好吧。。”

老师:“又来!要用正确的英语说话!不然放学都给我留下来!”

 

So as you can see Burns has brought a lot of pleasure and pain to the lives of many a Scottish student, he has also influenced many artists since his untimely demise.

所以,正如你所见,彭斯给苏格兰学生的生活带来了很多乐与痛,他逝后也影响了许多艺术家。


A great man, a great wordsmith and a real people's poet.

他是一个伟人,一个精于言辞、真正的人民诗人。



I hope you have enjoyed the article, and as you can see from above his poetry is now available in modern English if you wish to read more.

希望你们喜欢这篇文章,正如文章里他的诗歌目前已经有现代英语版,所以如果有兴趣你们可以读到更多他的诗歌。


As a final note some may ask why “Auld Lang Syne” perhaps his most famous tune wasn't included here? The reason being although it is used at a Burns supper, I felt it more appropriate for use in Scottish Celebrations. Which you can read about next time. Until then, take care!

最后,有些人可能会问为什么这里没有他最著名的歌曲“Auld Lang Syne”? 因为虽然它出现在彭斯晚餐中,我觉得它更适合用于苏格兰的庆祝活动里。 所以,你可以在下一篇文章中读到。 

 

For IELTS Takers this article may help you with:

准备雅思的人儿们,这篇文章的内容可以在以下雅思问题里对你有所帮助:

Talk about a famous person

Talk about an influential person

Talk about a historical figure.

Talk about a special occasion

Talk about a special food.